Migration and Development I. Context
- Migration is not a new phenomenon. It has been the human experience since the beginning of civilization. Some moved voluntarily, others were coerced to move and yet others drifted to new lands looking for a better life.
- Migration has become a megatrend of the 21st Century. According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), approximately 1 billion persons are in a migrant situation, either internationally (215 million) or internally (740 million), which means that at least one in seven people on the planet are on the move.
- Migration drivers include the search for better living and working conditions, food insecurity, unemployment, poverty, conflicts, natural disasters, education, among others,
- Migration is a very broad and cross-cutting issue. It is interlinked, both in positive and negative ways with:
- Human Rights – Migrants’ rights, human trafficking, discrimination, exploitation, forced migration, displacements;
- Labour – skilled and non-skilled migration, exploitation, labour laws not covering migrants (especially women), decent work, empowerment of women and youth, social protection;
- Health – medical services for migrants;
- Economy – financial inclusion, remittance transfers, financial education, diaspora associations, foreign investments by the diaspora;
- Education – opportunity to study abroad, brain-drain;
- Intellectual Property – inventions developed by migrants which get IP protection, technology transfer.
International Migration can benefit home country development while at the same time contributing to the development of the host country. Migration is a key issue for G-15 member countries, due to the fact that population growth will be driven by developing countries, while developed countries’ population will remain almost the same.
Related Documents Following on the outcome of the 2010 High-level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals, the United Nations Secretary-General established the UN System Task Team in September 2011 to support UN system-wide preparations for the post-2015 UN development agenda, in consultation with all stakeholders. The Task Team is led by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the United Nations Development Programme and brings together senior experts from over 50 UN entities and international organizations to provide system-wide support to the post-2015 consultation process, including analytical input, expertise and outreach. The following Think piece was drafted: Migration and human mobility 1. Relevance of migration at the global level International migration is a growing phenomenon, both in scope and in complexity, affecting almost all countries in the world. DESA estimates that in 2010 there were some 214 million international migrants worldwide, representing three per cent of the total global population. According to recent DESA estimates, there is as much international migration between less developed countries (due to a large extent to the growth of emerging markets) as there is international migration from less developed countries to more developed countries. According to the 2009 Human Development Report, there are also some 740 million internal migrants. In total, therefore, about 1 billion persons, or one in seven, currently live outside their country or region of origin. These estimates are however conservative, as they do not include many persons migrating on a seasonal or temporary basis Click here for the complete report drafted by the UN System task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda.